Yest since ancient times played an important role in the microorganisms life. Due to them we have such products as bread, spirit, vine and beer.

It was used on these times when their properties even were not fully analyzed. Old records keep the recipes and instructions to its use.

Yeast are singe-celled organisms – fungus’. A temperature 25-30 C is optimal for their reproduction. The minimal temperature is 2-3 C – with it they do not die, but the process of reproduction gets more slow. With 40 C yeast stop growing and die.

Yeast cease its vital activity with a high sugar concentration in an environment. This is due to the increased osmotic pressure that cases cells plasmolysis. Plasmolys – cell compression with subsequent deviation of protoplasm.

There are two types of yeast – grassroots and top-fermenting. Each type has several separate races (strains). Developing with fermented liquid, at the end of the process bottom-fermenting yeast settle to the bottom but not form a dense layer. Unlike roots, top-fermenting to the structure belong to the pulverulent yeast, which leads to rapid sedimentation of cells.

In the beginning were known top-fermenting only, as fermentation of juices occur at ordinary temperature. From one cell of yeast output species. And in the production the yeast have specific indicators.

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