Kiev is one of the most beautiful cities of the world, that spread on both sides of the river Dniper-Slavuta with its original culture, an ancient history, unique architectural ensembles, evergreen mountains and hills with gleaming domes of Christian shrines of Kiev’s churches and cathedrals.
City that impresses with its power, city that repeatedly tried to destroy. But it is like a bird the phoenix rising from the ashes. The legendary Golden Gate were subjected to destructive actions. Were subjected to the revages the legendary Golden Gate, Desyatinnaya church was wiped off the faceof the earth, many bridges were distroyed during the World War I and World War II. But anyway, today Kiev is a city with well-developed infrastructure, places to rest and many objects of tourist significance.
“CultKiev”offers to focus to the objects of bridge engineering. The bridges connect the right and the left banks of the city, they are the main motor roads. Their viewing platforms offer unrivaled views of the panorama of the ancient city-snowy hills in winter, green and blooming thickets of the mountains in spring and summer. Some bridges are places for romantic dates, many stories and popular beliefs related to them.
There are 150 bridges and bridge passages in Kiev today: seven brieges over the Dnieper, 26 through the water, 32 pedestrian and 88 for transportation.
The meaning and origin of the name “bridge”, briges types
Bridge is a special construction designed by engineers is designed to connect two sides between where is an obstacle (the road,the gulf, the river, ravine, etc. The bridge consists of bulls and spans, bulls reffered to support piles wich are located along the intire length of the brige. Support piles on both sides of the bridge are called foundatins.
All the bridges are classified according to several charecteristics such as:for the intended purpose:road,rail,pedestrian,metro bridges,combined bridges (road-rail), according to material the bridge made of:made of wood,stone, iron, steel,etc., according to system of constructions: cable stayed, beamed, framed, hanging, arched and combined.;separately distinguish such types of bridges as:pontoon (bridge that held on floating supports, and is attached to the anchors), drawbridges and prefabricated adjustible.
About the history of bridge construction
The first mention of the construction of bridges dated back 1097 year and mentoned in the chronicles of that time. An initiator of that was a Prince Vladimir Monomakh. The first floating bridge was built in1115. Also the records found dated by 1115, 1146, 1151, 1604, 1650 that points to the construction of wooden ferries that were versed in the winter. Today there is documentary confirmation dating back to 18th century of the existence of the four river crossings, probably this mention reffers to river crossings such as, Navodnitskaya, Spasskaya, Lybidska and Podolskaya.
The use of these crossings was paid. For exemple Vydubetckiy monastery handed over transportation for rent to Lybidskaya, for which it received a1600 gold per year, while they themselves had used it for free. The first bridge was Nickolayevskiy chain bridge, which could work day and night and has not being dissembled. It was built in 53 year of 19th century according to project of british engineer. Ch.de Viniol. On the left bank of the bridge has increased a region Predmostovaya Slobodka that was connected with four wooden bridges over Rusanovsky strait to Mikolskaya Slobodka.
In 1912 there was started an auto-vehicle tram line over the bridge, despite the dilapiation of it. The bridge was reinforced several times, but after being blown by Polish soldiers, was decided not to rebuild it. !0th May 1925 was the opening of a new bridge on the place of the former. The bridge was built according to the project of famous engineer E.O.Paton, and it was named after the party leader E.Bosh. This bridge reunited left bank tothe right. In the early 20th century in Kiev has been started the era of bridge construction. A little earlier,10th september 1920 there was opened railway bridge Darnitskiy.Some time later were opened three more bridges: Rusanovskiy, Petrovskiy and Navodnitskiy (the wooden).
The construction of such number of bridges was caused by overgrowth of the left bank of Kiev. The most famous bridge a bridge of modernity began to build in 1941, before that more than 10 years Yevhen Paton has done research whether to use welding in bridge construction. Khrushchev himself helped to approve a project, but during the war Yevgenia Bosh’s bridge and the piles of the new bridge wer distroyed. Paton had his way and in 1953 the bridge was built on new technologies. Unfortunately Yevhen Paton died before the bridge was open. By the way first bridges built by Paton Projects were Devil’s Bridge that leads to Mariinsky Park and the bridge that is near the Palace of Pioneers, by which you can get to the Park of Glory.
After the Paton’s bridge was built, there was erected pedestrian bridge to Truhanov island. From 1960 to 1990 all other bridges across the Dniper, Harbour and Rusanovsky duct were built, also has been opened the Metro bridge where passed the first subway branch.
BRIDGE ENGNEERING TODAY
Kiev has became a real megapolice today. The general construction plan presupposes not only the construction of high-rise buildings and skyscrapers, and also invisages construction of new bridges and flyovers,to help to make the movement more comfortable around Kiev. Already started the construction such of bridges as Darnitskiy road-rail bridge, Podolskiy bridge and others.
The list of bridges in Kiev
|№||Name of the bridge||Opening date||Length||Width||height||Type of the bridge|
|1||Petrovskiy Railway Bridge||09.11.1929||Railway bridge|
|2||Darnitskiy Railway bridge||1949, 27.09.2010||1066,2||43,8||80||Railway bridge|
|3||Paton’s bridge||05.11.1953||1543||27||Joist highway bridge|
|4||Parkoviy bridge||22.11.1910||Pedestrean bridge|
|7||Venetian bridge||1966||144||10||Pedestrian briidge|
|8||Moscovskiy bridge||03.12.1976||816||31,4||119||Cable-stayed road bridge|
|9||Yujniy bridge||25.12.1990||1256||41||135||Combined cable-stayed bridge|
|10||Gavanskiy bridge||17.12.2007||380||Highway bridge|
|№||Name of the bridge||Date of existence||Length||Width||Height||Type of the bridge|
|1||Nickolayevskiy chain bridge||1853-1920||776||16||Chain single-span bridge|
|2||Darnitskiy of Amanda Strave|
|3||Yevgenia Bosh’s bridge||1925-1941||776||16||Suspended joist single-span bridge|
|4||Rusanovskiy bridge||1906-1943||202||Suspended bridge|
|5||Navodnitskiy bridge||1713-1959||2055||Wooden bridge|
|№||Name of the bridge||Opening date||Length||Width||Height||Tipe of bridge|
|1||Bridge of lovers||1910||footbridge|
|2||Openwork bridge with chrome rails which connecting the Pioneer Palace and park of Glory||1912||footbridge|
|3||Footbridge connecting OCTOBER PALACE and shopping center “GLOBUS”||Just about 1943-1950||footbridge|
|4||Bridge throuhgt the Rusanovskiy channel||1961||footbridge|
|5||Footbridge from the Pochtovaya square to the river Station||footbridge|
|6||Footbridge on lake radunka||footbridge|
|№||Name of the bridge||Construction start date||Length||Width||height||Type of the bridge|
|1||Tunnel under Dnieper||1936||6000|
|№||Name of the bridge||Closing date||Length||Width||height||Type of the bridge|
|1||Rybalsky cable-stayed bridge||2009|
Bridges are constructed
|№||Name of the bridge||Openning date||Length||Width||height||Type of the bridge|
|№||Name of the bridge||Opening date||Length||Width||Height||Tipe of bridge|
|1||New bridge over the Rusanovskiy channal||Untill 2020||Footbridge|
|2||Footbridge over Vladimir descent and footbridge above the funicular railway||Footbridge|