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ГлавнаяНовости @en → The Orthodox faith and Kyivan shrines

The Orthodox faith and Kyivan shrines

The Orthodox faith is one of the three major religions in the world and the most widespread religion in the territory of Ukraine. The Orthodoxy has a lot of in common with Catholicism, but still there are differences, for example, the celebration of Christmas, rites and way of baptism during the liturgy and worship, yet both religion worship one God.

The term orthodoxy (literally from the Greek – “the right opinion, worship or teaching”) expresses the branch of the Christian faith that shares a belief in one God with Catholicism and Protestantism.

The church and faith are almost inseparably linked. There are several major categories, which are fundamental for Christianity.

The Old Testament tells about the faith, which was before the birth of Jesus Christ. In this period the Psalms was created, which became the base for religious services.

The New Testament tells about the period that has started from the birth of Christ till crucifixion and ascension.

The Creation of Church describes the period from 50 days after the ascension of Christ and the establishment of the Christian Church after 300 years of persecution. The first prayers were held during Christians meetings, when they sang psalms. And only with the advent of religious temples worship has gained the modern content.

The first prototypes of temples were nothing but meetings in the room. Then a first church was built. The main idea of the church is to unite a human with God and to grow spiritually. The temples are the unique structures that amaze visitors with interior and church relics, which pass from generation to generation. The clergy is another form, which has existed since the advent of the Faith. The main task of monasticism is to renounce creature comfort and to achieve the highest moral and spiritual state of mind.

The Orthodoxy or Orthodox Christianity originates from Judaism, which appeared in the second millennium BC. Later( in the I century AD) Judaism split into three faith, one of which was the Christian faith. In the second century AD Christianity has finally separated from Judaism. Christianity of that time had a different customs, rituals and symbols. The first symbols of Christianity were two fish and only later – the cross. Originally, Christianity was a faith of slaves and ordinary people who sought justice and care. Later, Christianity has also been split into three autonomous branches: Orthodoxy, Protestantism and Catholicism. The Orthodoxy formed in the II – III century AD.

In 325 the First Ecumenical Council (Nicene) took place. There the Arians were condemned, also the dogma of consubstantiality of Christ and the Father approved and the first Nicene Creed established. St. Athanasius played an important role.

In 381 the second Ecumenical Council was held. The dogma of consubstantiality of Son, the Father and the Holy Spirit admitted, also the editing of Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed.

The Third Ecumenical Council was held in 431. There the heretical Nestorius and Pelagius were condemned and also a decision was made to call the Virgin Mary – Mother of God.

Fourth Ecumenical Council was held at Chalcedony in 451. There heresy Archimandrite Eutyches and Nestorianism were condemned. Also a dogma that Jesus Christ was a sinless man, but had two natures – “inalienable and unchanging, indivisible and inseparable” was admitted. The bishop of Alexandria had the special influence on the forth council.

In 553 the fifth Ecumenical Council was held, which condemned the Monophysite.

The Sixth Ecumenical Council was held in 680, together with Trullan Synod. The main points were to compose the Code of Canon Law of the Christian Church in the East and to condemn Monothelites. During the next 100 years John of Damascus has formed a systematic theology of the Christian Faith

The Seventh Ecumenical Council was opened in 787. In its course the decision was made to honor icons, but to worship only the image on it.

The Local Council was held on 11 of March 843 year in Constantinople. The Empress Theodora accomplished the convocation. The» Triumph of Orthodoxy” took place, which was the triumph of the church and the anathema against the heretics announced. This event is relevant even today and it is held each year on the Sunday of Orthodoxy (first week of the Lent).

In 879 the Eighth Ecumenical local council in the church of Sofia took place. The changes in the Creed were condemned and Photius was reinstated to the patriarchal throne.

All the councils were held under the patronage of Romeyan emperors.
Christianity emerged on the territory of modern Ukraine from the baptism of Kyivan Rus in 988. Volodymyr the Great, the Prince of Kyiv, became the baptist of Rus. The scholars have argued that the Princess Olga was the one who baptized Kyiv’s people first. The reason was that she had adopted Christianity in Byzantium and had been named Helen, but her son Svyatoslav (father of Volodymyr the Baptist) worshiped pagan Gods.
The Prince Svyatoslav, son of Yaroslav the Wise and grandson of Volodymyr the Great continued to spread the Christianity. When baptized, princes received the “new” Christian names.

With the advent of the Soviet regime the Christian faith was supplanted with atheism, or rather it became a kind of clandestine activity. The people continued to baptize children at home, but were not allowed to speak about the belief in God. Since the early 80-ies of the 20th century Orthodoxy once again became a public faith and the christening is permitted. After the collapse of the Soviet Union the belief in the power of God is promoted among the population.

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