Who has not dreamed for a moment to become a bird, soar above the earth and feel the flight, when everything on earth seems so small, when nothing constrains your movements when you just fly? Do you want it to feel really? Then go to make your first parachute jump.
MEANING OF THE WORD “PARACHUTE” AND ITS VARIANTS:
Parachute (French) is a special device to reduce the rate of movement of the person or goods by air, as well as for braking aircraft engines during landing.
The classic parachute is a hemispherical dome and cables for control and a special system for fixing people or cargo.
Today there are several varieties of parachutes:
– Landing (individual) parachutes designed to slow the movement of the person in the air, for the landing, rescue, and for parachuting;
– Cargo parachutes are designed to release the cargo or equipment. Depending on the weight of the load from one to several parachutes at one time can be applied.
– Rescue parachute system for aircraft is one of the subtypes of cargo parachutes, which are designed to ensure maximum safety of emergency landing of the aircraft;
– Braking parachutes are designed to provide braking of the aircraft (transport and military), and also for braking vehicles in each racing.
– Parachutes for space vehicles have greater functionality. They are used for the landing of probes and other devices on the planet’s surface.
– Stabilizing parachute designed to regulate the correct positioning of the body or cargo during the lawering.
The shapes of the parachutes are: round and round with the dragged vertex (type wing Rogallo), ribbon parachutes, parafoils, square parachutes, parachutes in the form of scallops, and others.
THE BACKGROUND OF THE PARACHUTE INVENTION:
The first parachute was described in 16 century in writings of the great Leonardo da Vinci, who suggested that the sewn tent made of starched fabric could allow a person to descend from a height onto the ground. A similar description was in 17th century by a scientist Faust Veranchino. But the first test of a similar structure belonged to a French prisoner Laven, who had escaped.
In 1777 there was a successful test of a parachute (a flying cape), by Jean Dume, who was sentenced to death. For the first time the name of the parachute was given in December 1783 by Lenorman, a Frenchman who jumped from the roof of the observatory. Only in 1834, an engineer Kokking experienced a new parachute, which did not sway, but with a repeated testing died.
An inventor Lalande decided to make the opening for air, and his parachute is still in use. The first knapsack parachute came with a light hand of an inventor Kotelnikov in 1911, especially for pilots. Originally knapsack was iron, after that iron was replaced by tissue.
In the Soviet Union Gromov first became a testing parachute pilot, who on June 23, 1927 landed on a parachute of American manufacturing. After that, the USSR had the first rescue service pilots in the air. Minov first started learning the Soviet pilots parachute jumping.
The first mass parachute jumping from an airplane was implemented on July 26, 1930 under Minow’s conducting. Airborne troops were established in 1930 the twentieth century, on August 2. And the first long jump was made by Evdokimov on May 22, 1932. On June 18 of that year, Petov jumped from a height of 5200 meters.
The first woman-parachutist became Kuleshov, who made a jump on July 9, 1931. Since 1935 the Central Aeroclub of the USSR was created and the Soviet Union joined the International Federation of Aviation (FAI). Since then skydiving is actively developing.
The first World Championship on parachuting was organized in 1951.
THE PARACHUTE SYSTEM:
The modern parachute system for jumping a person consists of elements: jellyfish (exhaust chute), topmast, the camera of a main canopy (place laying the main canopy), wing (canopy), lines (A, B, C and D), a slider device (corrugations), risers (risers), a spare parachute harness (and uncoupling, ring of an extra parachute, transit RSL), insuring device (automatic disclosure of the reserve parachute) and a knapsack.
TYPES OF JUMPING:
Parachuting is developing in several directions: jumping on the accuracy of a landing, freestyle, friflay, individual and group acrobatics, para-ski, blade Running (long jump with a span from a low altitude), Sky surfing, swoop, and parabaluning BASE (jumping from static objects ).
If you decided to jump down for the first time, then you have two options: individual parachute jump or a tandem jump with an experienced parachutist.
Skydiving in tandem with an experienced instructor is the safest form of parachuting for a beginner. You are required a minimum of effort, all the rest an experienced skydiver will do for you. For such a jump, a special design that allows two people to consolidate into one system and get down on one parachute is used. In addition, this allows you to jump as much as 60 seconds in a state of free flight, and only then is the opening of the parachute.
Another huge advantage of this type of jump is that the landing is run by a professional, so everything goes “like a clockwork” and you will definitely want to repeat the jump again.
The speed of free fall parachutist is 180-200 km / h.
Individual Jumpings suggest pre-deployment training at the base, in a program that will teach you how to perform a jump, open the parachute, how to control the landing and what to do if you have not opened the parachute (just in case).
It must be remembered that for the jump you’ll need comfortable clothing and footwear, which is tied to the laces that you won’t lose them during the flight (boots or shoes with thick comfortable soles that securely fastened at the ankle, and fix the ankle). It is desirable that the clothes were tight and tightening at the wrists and ankles. Before you jump, you will be given special glasses that allow seeing the ground during free fall.
In spring-autumn period it is recommended to wear warm clothing, and in the summer, be sure to use a barrier cream against the sun.
And most important, before a jump it is necessary to remove all jewellery, watches, rings, etc.
WHERE ONE CAN JUMP WITH A PARACHUTE
1 – DZ Seagull
2 – Chernihiv Parachute Club “Progress”
3 – Dropzona “Borodyanka”