The Ukrainian first museum of the car history owes its birth to activists of the “Kiev’s club of collectors”. They have long been collecting the exposition, which today has five thousand items, each of them has its own unique history.
FATHERS of the CAR
Officially, the car, as a class, was born just over a hundred years ago. Fathers of the automobile industry are Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler, who in the late XIX century, invented the first horseless carriage with a gasoline internal combustion engine.
But they were not the only ones who came up with this idea. Hundreds of the best technical minds were preoccupied with the invention of the crew, who could move without the horse. And it came through the joint efforts of all interested people.
Long before the birth of Daimler Benz and in 1678 a Belgian missionary Ferdinand Ferbist, who served as a court physicist and astronomer at the court of Chinese Emperor Kang-hee, decided to try to put a steam engine on a cart with four wheels.
The steam escaping from the boiler was going to send a wheel with blades. Due to the high pressure the steam boiler was heated by pushing the wheel, the blades were spinning around its axis, the driving wheels, and thus the truck was moving.
The FIFTH WHELL
To be able to turn back, the fifth wheel was attached to the primitive hinge. The length of the machine was only 60 cm.
The Son of the Chinese emperor was delighted with his new mechanical toy, which appearance made a revolution in mechanics. The description of his creations Ferbist made in the book “European Astronomy”, thus pushing the DIY foremen to make attempts to recreate the analogues of a steam engine.
Very different models with one abiding principle were obtained – a steam boiler with a burner, a wheel with blades, front-wheel drive with a pair of gears.
In one of the works of world-renowned physicist and mathematician Isaac Newton (100001680) the crew moving through the reactive power of steam was described. Thus, Newton offered the world an entirely different principle of movement, rather than those proposed by Ferbist.
Modern technological developments confirm the hunch of Newton and indicate the absence of errors in its design, but to push forward such a cart, the pressure of steam must have been enormous. The most interesting thing is that the invention of a steam engine jet by Newton is widely used in aircraft and rocketry.
The STEAM CREW
XVII century is full of attempts to build steam carriages. A designer of stationary steam engines, James Watt was trying to calculate small-sized steam engines for transport, but the result came to the conclusion that such machines can not be constructed.
One of the students of Watt, William Murdock in 1785, tried to make an experimental model based on the reciprocating steam engine, despite the strict ban from Watt to develop automobile theme, because of its futility.
Its small design (10000480 * 360 * 180 mm), William Murdock, with the risk of being expelled, continued to experience at night.
Later, a steam engine of Symington appeared provided for passengers which can rightly be considered a car.
Launched in 1786, this model proved to be unprofitable because of too much weight, small size, large turning radius in size, too small capacity of steam engine and a lack of progress.
In Trevithick steam carriage the speed reached 8 km / h, and it could move twice faster from the mountain.
It waited for a sad ending: the intensive exploitation and neglect of preventive and repair work almost killed the coach – the chassis have finally collapsed.
The END OF THE STEAM MACHINES AGE
Mechanically the steam engine at full drive, invented by Burstall and Hill in 1824 was ahead of its time. A year 1886 marked the end of a steam engines era and began the era of gasoline in the automobile industry – there appeared the first cars on the gasoline engine and Daimler Benz.
Until today the steam landau Bordino (100001854) of Italian production, now being exhibited at Turin Transport Museum has survived. The engine crew was placed under a car and a steam boiler was placed behind.
The first model of Benz’s sample in 1885 was a double crew on three high-spoked wheels. Gasoline engine with the power 0.9 hp was a four-stroke one and had a water-cooling.
Over the axis of large rear wheels a cylinder was placed horizontally, which led them to move with one belt and two chain drives. A large flywheel, also located horizontally, worked under the engine.
Bevel gear connected it with the crankshaft to rotate it and start the engine. The power for the electric plugs was galvanic battery – it has become more advanced solution than the glowing tubes operating in parallel to Daimler.
Only in 1926, Daimler and Benz have joined forces and opened a joint venture company.
UNPRECEDENTED PROGRESS – 16 km/h
Benz models differed from wooden Daimler’s carts with metal frame. The car speed was, by today’s standards, ridiculous – 16 miles per hour, but it was twice faster than riding a horse and was considered unprecedented progress.
This allowed their creator to participate in international exhibition of automobiles. In 1893 Benz established four-wheel vehicle model with the new patented invention – pivot system of turning wheels that can rotate individually, and not all together on one axis (the real Benz Company’s technical victory).
The crew was open with two seats and high wheels. Engine compartment has been completely closed and a single cylinder engine with a capacity of 3 litres was placed inside. Its power was about three horsepower.
This car model has become the darling of the owner and was called Viktoria, which means “Victoria”. With this machine Benz quickly corrected the company’s business. And he was inspired to create a new series of lightweight crews “Bicycle”, which embodied the idea of the four-wheel carriage from the former three-wheel one.
In the three years time since 1894, 381 cars of this brand were released, so it is considered the first production vehicle in automobile history.
“Benz Velo”, appearing in Russia in 1894, became the first swallow and the sample on which two years later the first domestic car was created by E. Yakovlev, and P. Froese”: its replica is presented in the collection of the Kiev Museum of automobile history.
WHOSE WAS THE IDEA OF CREATING A MUSEUM?
The idea to organize such a museum was embodied by three enthusiasts of the Kiev’s collectors club Valery Ulybushev, Vladimir Sorokolat and Dmitry Alterman.
Dmitri is a guide, he is also the deputy chairman of the Club. This man is not just in love with cars, he knows in detail the history of creation of each model.
That’s what he told us: in Soviet times, especially since 1970 it has become fashionable to be engaged in collecting.
Then people collected everything – from brands and boxes from the matches up to the paintings and works of art.
Another boy, Dimitri received a gift from her mother 10-ruble car model, with which he began his collection. It became a matter of life, for which it was worth to deny something else.
Five thousand exhibits are located in 45 booths, so that we can follow the process how the automobile era was developing, starting with the coaches and up to modern domestic and foreign cars. Scale of models is different: 1:18, 1:24 and 1:43.
Some of them are collected by hand, some of them are a reworked production models. Located next to the cars figures of people create more believable effect.
Here are the entire Soviet classic automobile and unique foreign models, including cars that drove the heroes of popular James Bond films, the Italian Mafia and others.
A separate booth is occupied with private cars of great people – politicians and artists.
At the next booth there are cars from popular movies: almost all the cars from all the James Bond series, betcars, the car “expert” from the movie “Back to the Future, a truck of a Soviet policemen – Zheglov and Sharapov from ” Meeting place can not be changed, Cadillac of the character Al Pacino (100001963) from the “Scar face”, Count Dracula car that simulates the coffin, and the car of Ghostbusters.
According to the leaders of the museum, over two thirds of the available exhibits have long been discontinued. No insurance company wants to take the responsibility to insure the exposition.
For example, model “Rafik”, which accompanied athletes who brought the Olympic flame in Moscow in 1980, at the auction costs now about $ 1500.
The EXPOSITION OF THE FIRST HALL
The exposition of the first hall is represented in scale 1:18 and 1: 24. There is the Adolf Hitler’s car with him, made of plastic, there is the first car of 1884 of the founder Charles Banks, racing car stars of Formula 1. Seven cars from the Italian ceramics are rounding out the collection of the first hall.
The EXPOSITION OF THE SECOND HALL
The Size of cars of the second hall – 1:43. Here are the “papomobil”, the model of “Citroen” with the figure of the famous General de Gaulle, a Mercedes, a trip on which was fatal to Kennedy, the first model of Ford 1902, and even a pink Cadillac of the legendary Elvis Presley, along with his figure.
Here Lenin was speaking at an armored car in front of soldiers who surrounded him. three-wheeled buggy is represented, like the one given to invalids in the post-war time after the Great Patriotic War. One of the masters showed remarkable wit and humor, turning a model of Zaporozets into a limousine.
A special attention is given to a collection of fire trucks in their evolution since the beginning of the century to the existing, and military equipment.
DOMESTIC MOTOR INDUSTRY
But, of course, the most detailed exposition is the exposition of the domestic automobile industry: all brands of Chaika, Volga and Lada, governmental limousines.
You can admire the unique exhibits: Zaporozhets-limo, car-swan, which are made at the whim of a millionaire in Calcutta in 1910.
Looking at all this beauty, one is struck by the genius of engineering. One is forced to think about the fact that there are no creative jobs and not creative ones, and physics and mathematics may not be so boring and if they can turn an ordinary piece of iron into a product of automobile art and glorify its creator.